3-dimensional (3D) packaging technologies exploit the third or Z height dimension to provide a volumetric packaging solution for higher integration and performance. 3D packaging has become critical to integrating the multi-media features consumers demand in smaller, lighter products. This increasing functionality requires higher memory capacity in more complex and efficient memory architectures.
New product designs (cell phones, digital cameras, PDAs, audio players and mobile gaming) demand that these features be delivered in innovative form factors and styling. 3D packaging is experiencing high growth and new applications by delivering the highest level of silicon integration and area efficiency at the lowest cost.
3D Packaging Innovation
Since 1998, Amkor Technology has been a pioneer in
developing and providing high volume, low cost 3D packaging
technologies. Amkor understood the benefits that 3D packaging provided
which would address a wide range of device combinations and end product
a platform technology development through deployment approach was
created to transcend the range of applications and packaging platforms
requiring 3D technology. Customers continue to benefit from this
approach as new 3D packaging solutions are more effectively qualified
and ramped to high volume, at low cost and across multiple factories.
The critical 3D platform technologies include:
- Design rules and infrastructure for thinner, high density substrate technologies
- Advanced wafer thinning and handling systems
- Thinner die attach and die stacking processes
- High density and low loop wire bonding
- Pb free and environmentally conscious "Green" material sets
- Flip chip plus wire bond mixed technology stacking
- Turnkey die and package stacking assembly and test flows
Benefits of Three Dimensional (3D) Packages
The high growth and development of multiple 3D packaging technologies are due to the system level benefits provided, including:
- Size and weight reduction through more semiconductor functions per cm² of PWB space and cm³ of application space
- Enables more design freedom to create innovative new form factors and styling through volumetric packaging approach
- Enables higher electrical performance through shorter interconnect architectures with stacking
- Reduced system level costs
die stacking technologies are widely deployed in high volume
manufacturing across multiple factories and product lines. The key
features: reliability, process and materials data are listed in the Stacked CSP
data sheet. Customers rely on Amkor's turnkey and leading edge
capabilities in design, assembly and test to solve their most complex 3D
packaging or time to market challenges.
generation die stacking technology includes the ability to handle wafers
and die thinned down to below 35µm. It can then be reliably stacked and
interconnected with up to 16 active devices high, employing leading
edge die attach, die spacing, wire bond and flip chip assembly
stacking technologies have been demonstrated up to 24 high stacks,
however, most stack ups greater than 9 devices high use a combination of
die and package stacking technologies to address complex test, yield
and logistic limitations..
Die stacking is also widely deployed in conventional leadframe-based packages including QFP, MLF®
and SOP formats. Leveraging Amkor’s industry leading infrastructure for
high volume, low cost leadframe production, system designations can
achieve significant savings in PCB real estate and overall cost.
Package Stacking (PoP - Package-on-Package)
of fully assembled and tested packages is an area Amkor has provided
significant innovation to overcome the technical, business and logistics
limitations associated with complex die stacks. After three years of
development in package stacking technology and infrastructure, Amkor
launched the multiple award winning PSvfBGA
platform in the 4th quarter of 2004. The next four years saw many new
milestones, from the publication of JEDEC mechanical and electrical
standards to a range of new customers and applications adopting PoP
along with new structures in the PSvfBGA platform. By the end of 2006,
PSvfBGA had become the fastest growing new package platform in Amkor's
four decade history, reflecting the strong industry adoption of PoP and
Amkor's technology leadership.
PSvfBGA supports single die, stacked die using wirebond or hybrid (FC + wirebond) stacks and has been applied for flip chip
(FC) applications to improve warpage control and package integrity
through test and SMT handling. As handheld microprocessors have
transitioned to advanced CMOS nodes with higher speed cores with higher
I/O, there has been a transition from wirebond to flip chip die designs.
Flip chip enables the use of an exposed die bottom package that
integrates the package stacking design features of PSvfBGA in a fcCSP
assembly flow, which Amkor calls PSfcCSP. PSfcCSP has a thin exposed FC
die enabling fine pitch stacked interfaces at 0.5mm pitch which is a
challenge in a center molded PSvfBGA structure.
is now entering the second generation for PoP applications where new
memory architectures required in mobile multimedia applications, demand
higher density stacked interfaces in combination with PoP mounted area
and height reductions. The current PSvfBGA and PSfcCSP structures limit
the ability of the memory interface to scale in density and pitch, thus a
new bottom PoP structure was needed.
three years of development, Amkor introduced the next generation PoP
solution with new technologies to create interconnect vias through the
mold cap, naming this technology through mold via (TMV™). TMV™
technology provides a stable bottom package that enables use of thinner
substrates with a larger die to package ratio. TMV™ enabled PoP can
support single, stacked die or FC designs. TMV™ is an ideal solution for
the emerging 0.4mm pitch low power DDR2 memory interface requirements
and enables the stacked interface to scale with solder ball pitch
densities to 0.3mm pitch or below.
next few years promise to provide many new challenges and applications
for PoP, as handheld multimedia applications continue to demand higher
signal processing power and data storage capabilities. Amkor is
committed to maintain strong development and production capabilities to
ensure we are at the forefront in meeting next generation PoP